A meme is "an idea, behavior, or style that spreads from person to person within a culture."
A meme acts as a unit for carrying cultural ideas, symbols, or practices that can be transmitted from one mind to another
through writing, speech, gestures, rituals, or other imitable phenomena with a mimicked theme.
Supporters of the concept regard memes as cultural analogues to genes in that they self-replicate, mutate,
and respond to selective pressures.
The word meme is a shortening (modeled on gene) of mimeme (Ancient Greek for "imitated thing").
It was coined by the British evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins in The Selfish Gene (1976)
as a concept for discussion of evolutionary principles in explaining the spread of ideas and cultural phenomena.
Language defined by Analysis
Language has largely been treated by philosophers and linguists for the past few generations as a set of symbols which have a clear
meaning which can be analyzed in an utterance in isolation from any other utterance.John Searle has proposed the existence of semantical rules intended to represent the linguistic meaning of
any "speech act". That meaning is dependent on the intention and the "tradition" or culture of the speaker. The genesis of analytic philosophy was the
"Tractatus Logico-Philosophic" by Ludwig Wittgenstein. In a bizarre twist of history the Austrian philosophers interpreted this
treatise as implying that...
Language defined by how it plays out in the real world
Language is a game in the sense meant by Ludwig Wittgenstein in his "Philosophical Investigations". People exchange packets of speech
that are part of a conversation which is played out between two or more people within a social setting of some sort.
Language defined as an encoding of information on a communications channel
Language is an attempt by one brain to infect another brain by inserting carefully crafted memes into the channel. In this
respect memes are like viruses in the human body or in cyberspace where a bit of syntax is inserted with infects the mind of
the recipient of the message. This assertion is not meant to imply that the speaker acted with any malicious intent, or even
that the speaker always understands the meme that is transmitted over the channel. Any communications message can be
infected by memes floating around that are not fully understood by the parties to the speech act; such is the insidious impact
of prejudice within any community of speakers. Infection can spread throughout any community without the awareness of any
member of the community.
Speech is an encoding of the speaker's thoughts, which is more, or less, his attempt to insert ideas in the mind of the listener.
Like any encoding, if both the speaker and the listener have the same understanding, then the speech is effective at conveying information.
If the two parties do not share the same understanding, the result of any misunderstanding can be humorous, tragic, or just plain meaningless.
The same can be true even in those cases where the speaker and the listener have the same understanding of the content of the speech.
The facts that i know to be true are treated by others as: Prejudice, Superstition, Blasphemy, Guesses, Beliefs or Falsehoods.
Everyone has an option. I just happen to know that my opinions are fact based and yours of not well considered.
An Identity is a hard thing to describe in a manner that gets a large faction of people to agree. The problem of creating an
agreeable definition is not new. In 300 BCE a Chinese philosopher wrote a dialog that claimed to prove that a
White Horse was not a Horse.
This paradox was created by some tortured logic that a Horse was a shape and White was a color, but the White Horse was something
different. Similar paradoxes are created when logic is applied to any taxonomy of identity attributes. Let us content ourselves
with the definition that an Identity is just a collection of attributes, including identifiers of any sort at all. It is best
if logic is not applied to the collection of attributes if paradox is to be avoided. It is too much to expect that attributes
assigned by a random collection to human beings to other humans should be, in any way, consistent.
Trust Model concepts
is captured by the meme "A projection into the future of past behavior." This meme allows for such
phrases as "he can be trusted to do the wrong thing at the wrong time." The use of trust today often
implies integrity, which is something else altogether.
Integrity in silicon-based life forms
was first articulated in
K. J. Biba 'INTEGRITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR SECURE COMPUTER SYSTEMS'
Widely known as the 'Biba Integrity Model' or as 'Mandatory Integrity Control' (MIC).
It was developed using the MULTICS operating
system on the General Electric computer that first enabled multiple levels of operation in hardware. It was also
published internally by MITR as "Integrity Considerations for Secure Computer Systems",
This security model is directed toward data integrity (rather than confidentiality)
and is captured by the meme: "no read down, no write up".
This is in contrast to the Bell-LaPadula model which is captured by the meme "no write down, no read up".
But note that the von Neumann model of a common memory store for programs and data is assumed.
Other assumptions can result in a richer (more complex) security model.